How To Steam Milk For Barista Coffee

Ask any barista what the key to making a great coffee is and they’ll tell you it’s a good shot and perfectly steamed milk.

steaming milk barista

What Is Steamed Milk?

Steamed milk is the end result of milk being exposed to high pressured steam from an espresso machine. It is made by introducing steam gradually into milk until the natural fats within it expand to create ‘micro-foam’, a layer of very small milk bubbles. The end result is a smooth, silkily beverage perfect for espresso based drinks. The idea sounds simple enough, but in practise it requires a gentle touch and sound technique.

How To Steam Milk

(1) Fill The Jug With Milk

The first step is filling your jug with milk. This may sound like a obvious step, but it’s actually quite important to get the right amount of milk in your jug, not only to produce the best steamed milk but also for milk conservation. Fill the milk half way up the jug until the surface of the milk hits the lower nudge or ‘v’ of the jug spout.

Fill milk half way up jug to steam milk

(2) Milk Stretching

The second step is called ‘stretching’ and is when you turn the steam on and have the nozzle of the steam wand below the surface of the milk to make a hissing sound. This processes creates micro-foam by letting air gently into the milk.

The key is to have the nozzle just a fraction under the surface of the milk in order to create foam while making the milk spin in a whirlpool motion. I find that the milk stretching stage lasts about 5 seconds as you only need to introduce a little bit of air into the milk. Once you create enough foam for your coffee — more for a cappuccino less for a latte — you move onto the third stage.

keep the wand just below the surface

(3) Milk Spinning/Whirlpool

The third stage is called ‘spinning’ and is when you submerge the steam wand nozzle another fraction below the milk — literally half a centimetre (1/5th of an inch) — and continue to spin the milk in a whirlpool motion. You should hear no hissing sound, other than the occasional leftover bubble being eaten up by the steam wand. This spinning process mixes the micro foam with the milk in order to ‘polish’ the milk. The key to spinning the milk is to tilt the jug a little to get the perfect whirlpool. You’ll need to find the sweet-spot which is a little off-centre and try to keep it there from start to finish. You can see me doing this below.

Keep spinning the milk until the jug becomes too hot to touch or around 60 degrees celsius (140 fahrenheit) then turn off the steam and wipe your steam wand with a wet, clean cloth. However I find for latte art it’s best to have the milk a little cooler around 50 degrees celsius (122 fahrenheit).

(4) Rest and Polish

Once the milk is made give the jug one solid THUMP on the counter to disperse any big bubbles and then leave it to sit whilst you put the espresso shots on. Then, before pouring, swirl the milk around the jug to polish the milk and to make sure the milk and micro-foam is together. The more shiny the milk the better, but don’t be too rough otherwise you’ll make new bubbles. You want the milk to look like wet paint.

Perfectly steamed milk looking like wet paint

(5) Pour

When the milk is well-spun, the foam will pour out of the jug first because it sits near the top. You want to pour the milk into the coffee at a steady pace. The key is to pour the milk along side your cup by resting the spout of the jug on the top of your cup.

If you used a big jug you will want to distribute the foam between the different coffees. The general rule is to pour cappuccinos first, hot chocolates second, lattes third and flat whites last. Another handy tip is to ‘split’ your milk by pouring half of your milk into a smaller jug, this lets you have more control of how much foam you add to your milk-based espresso drinks. You can also do latte art like this.

Congratulations you’ve now learned how to steam milk! Make sure to match it with our guide on making espresso. Or if you want to take a short cut to steamed milk check our picks for the best milk frothers. Or if you want even more automation have a look at our best cappuccino makers. To recap what we’ve learned below is a quick diagram of the above steps:

How to steam milk for coffee

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14 responses to “How To Steam Milk For Barista Coffee”

  1. Hey thanks for the comment on steaming milk [on my blog] I'm glad you like my stuff!

  2. Colin Bovet says:

    This is a great guide. I've tried for years to get good foam, but I haven't tried this! Can't wait to test it out.

  3. Amy Keillor says:

    Love all your tips! Any favourite brands when it comes to milk pitchers?

  4. Not so much favourite brands, as long as they're the right shape they serve me well. I prefer pitchers with a slightly more pointed spout as it gives you greater control when you do latte art. Glad my tips helped 🙂

  5. Thank you for the awesome tips!

  6. Dani Kollin says:

    Great article. Might wanna fix the typos, though: :… the jug until *it* the surface..” and “spilt” should be “split.”

  7. Pasanoid Pasanoid says:

    I remember how my senior taught me: u put da thing in da pot and finda point when it goes like ‘shu-ush-h-h’ and then u like move da pot around so it keeps going ‘shu-ush-h-h’ untill its ok to serve.

    Tis good to have a comprehensive guide about the stuff. 🙂

    • I’ve taught people at work with sound effect too haha. But instead of “shu-ush-h-h” I say the milk should should like “hiss-hisss-hissss” and if it sounds like “GUSSHHHHHHH” you’ve stuffed it up. Glad the guide helped 🙂

  8. Dimas Naufal Pratama says:

    when do I can tell that I steamed the milk perfectly? I have a lot troubles with that

  9. Sipu ga says:

    Ne znam da li razumes ali pitacu te ipak. Ako ne mogu i na engleskom . 🙂 Zanima me , pocetnik sam kao barista i radim u restoranu. Koje latijere mi trebaju sve ( gramaza ili u ml ) i koliko mi treba mleka za jedan kapucino odnosno 2 , 3 kada imam vece porudzbine . Da ne bih trosio previse mleka.

  10. Ivan Clayton says:

    This article is really helpful for me.
    I tried steaming milk for latte.
    It would be really appreciated if you could give me your advice.

  11. Alex Southern says:

    Thanks very helpful

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